Sisa Makanan Pasien Rawat Inap: Analisis Kualitatif

Laksmi Karunia Tanuwijaya, Lydia Gresari Sembiring, Cleonara Yanuar Dini, Eva Putri Arfiani, Yudi Arimba Wani

Abstract


Penyelenggaran makanan di rumah sakit merupakan sistem pendukung dalam mempercepat kesembuhan pasien dari penyakit.  Sisa makanan pasien mencerminkan  rendahnya daya terima pasien terhadap makanan yang dapat meningkatkan risiko malnutrisi. Penting untuk mengetahui faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap adanya sisa makanan pada piring pasien. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggali dan menganalisis secara kualitatif mengenai faktor yang memengaruhi pasien rawat inap menyisakan makanan di rumah sakit Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang. Desain penelitian adalah studi kualitatif  menggunakan wawancara mendalam kepada pasien, yang memiliki sisa makanan > 25% melalui observasi langsung sisa makanan dengan pendekatan Comstock pada 6 pasien yang berusia 18-35 tahun. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata sisa makanan pasien dalam 3 kali waktu makan adalah 57%. Faktor yang dominan mempengaruhi pasien menyisakan makanan  meliputi faktor internal (kondisi klinis, kebiasaan makan, jenis kelamin), faktor eksternal  (rasa makanan, suhu makanan, tekstur, warna makanan, porsi dan variasi bahan makanan), faktor lingkungan (makanan luar rumah sakit). Faktor internal, faktor eksternal, dan faktor lingkungan secara langsung mempengaruhi persepsi pasien terhadap makanan rumah sakit sehingga mendorong pasien untuk menyisakan makanan rumah sakit.  

Kata kunci: sisa makanan, kualitatif, rumah sakit

Abstract

Food service management in a hospital is a support system in accelerating the patient’s recovery from illness. Plate waste of the patient reflects low acceptance of a patient to food that may increase malnutrition risk. It is important to identify the factors that affect the occurrence of plate waste on patient food. This study aimed to explore and to analyze qualitatively about the factors that affect inpatients’ plate waste in Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang hospital. This study was a qualitative study using in-depth interviews to patients who had >25% plate waste through food waste direct observation using Comstock approach in 6 patients aged 18-35 years. The results show that the average patient's plate waste in 3 meal times was 57%. The dominant factors affecting the patient plate waste include internal factors (clinical conditions, eating habits, gender), external factors (food taste, food temperature, texture, food color, portion, and variety of foodstuffs), and environmental factors (food from outside). Internal factors, external factors, and environmental factors directly influence the patient's perception of hospital food, stimulating patients to plate waste.

Keywords: plate waste, qualitative, hospital


Keywords


sisa makanan, kualitatif, rumah sakit

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.ijhn.2018.005.01.6

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